The book provides in encyclopediac form, key references on the social context of the first pandemic of globalization. Sources are first of all anthropological but also draw on social sciences and beyond. The red thread is the understanding of the cultural diversity relevant to the pandemic in the many sub cultures identified by anthropology as a essential background for more effective prevention. The cultural diversity is much under researched, whilst the explanation of the pandemic still remains rather obscure and much action is obstructed by ubiquitous stereotypes. There are many questions especially on the concentration of the virus in Southern Africa and the links between immune depression and poverty, war and environmental degradation.