Cultures shift by absorbing outside influences and dealing creativeley with them. In the age of European expansion the Europeans gradually changed their view of the world. Missionaries propagated their religion and had to learn how to approach those whom they wanted to convert. Non-Europeans adapted European ideas and used them in their own social context, like the Mexican Indian nobleman who re-wrote Calderon's plays in Nahuatl or the Brazilians who created a new popular culture. This volume contains many interesting contributions of this kind and highlights cultural history which has often been eclipsed by political and economic history.