Self-efficacy (SE) is the critical link between environment, culture, institutions, modernization, and development. It enables adaptive learning from environmental stimuli, and fosters agency, cooperation, goal setting, openness, opportunity recognition, and longer-term planning. SE can be regarded as fertilizer for any policy measure. Research amongst smallholder farmers in South Ghana shows that historical return on investment culturally bequeathed investment SE, which largely influences today's farming investment and household income. SE is well malleable and perceptive to intentional promotion.
Barbara Drosten (PhD) is a social scientist and was affiliated to the University of Hamburg for this research after a career in business and international trade administration.