In 1776 the US proclaimed its independence. It was not until 1817 that Austrian Emperor Franz I ordered the establishment of a Consulate in the US, which led to the arrival in 1820 of the first Consul in New York City. This book describes when, where, and why 53 Consulates of Austria (-Hungary) were established in the US from 1820 to the present. It describes the Consuls, their daily work and challenges - including pan-Slavic activities before 1914. It offers a glimpse at the living conditions of the immigrants and migrant workers who came to the US from the Empire before WWI, reflecting the sentiment (1911) that "in no country the foreigner, and particularly the uneducated foreigner, is more in need of protection than in the United States". In 1922 the Republic of Austria opened its first Consular Offices in New York and Chicago, and today Austria maintains 30 Consulates throughout the US.