This book provides insights into the development of institutions during war and peace times in Sudan, and presents an analysis of the impact of institutional variables on investment and economic growth. The study combines a new institutional economics framework and a socioeconomic analysis of investment behavior with an analysis of the process of post-conflict reconstruction and development in Sudan/South Sudan. The book contains a wealth of information for policymakers, for the development aid community and for researchers, based on the results of a cross-country analysis of panel data for Sudan and the results of survey data on investment determinants in South Sudan. An agenda for institutional reform is suggested for Sudan and South Sudan on the basis of the findings of the study. The book presents valuable discussions on policy-relevant issues for Sudan and South Sudan, and also indicates areas of future research for Sudan and South Sudan. This book is dedicated to the people of Sudan who suffered from long years of civil war in their country. It is a timely publication, few weeks after the Referendum on the Independence of South Sudan and just few months towards the Independence Declaration of South Sudan on July 9, 2011. The book also contains an agenda for economic cooperation between Sudan and independent South Sudan.